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Viral infections of cats - the current recommendations

This article focuses on the most common viral disease of cats. These include diseases such as rabies, Aujeszky’s disease, feline panleukopenia, feline immunodeficiency, calicivirus, coronavirus, herpes and other infections.

viruses cause severe disease in domestic cats, often leading to death. The source of the virus particles are not only sick animals, but animals of virus that produce infectivity in feces, urine, outflows from the eyes, the nose, the contents of pustules, etc. Transmission of the virus occurs both by direct contact with sick animals and / or infected with HIV, as well as through the air when kept together sick and healthy cats, a litter, cages, dishes, etc. Contribute to the spread of viruses such factors as crowding animal welfare (especially at shows), the violation of elementary hygiene measures, the tendency of cats to wander, and stress factors (long transportation, visits to veterinary hospitals, malnutrition, hypothermia).

Treatment of viral diseases is very time-consuming and not very efficient because until recently, in the arsenal of veterinarians was not drugs (with the exception of serum), which have direct antiviral activity and treatment actually came down to fight with symptomatic manifestations of such infections.

therapy of viral diseases should be aimed at restoring the protective barriers of the mucous membranes, the fight against viruses, correction of immunity (stimulation of natural resistance, protection against secondary infections), removal or weakening of the manifestations of the disease (symptomatic treatment), as well as the replacement of disturbed physiological functions organism (replacement therapy). In addition, viral diseases is important a good diet, balanced content of vitamins, macro-and micronutrients.fosprenil for cats This is not only an important component of therapy, but also a way of releasing the body from accumulated during the illness of toxins, which is especially important after a period of anorexia or starvation diet. In such cases, the most effective proved to be a new drug Gamavit (contains placenta extract, nukleinat sodium physiologically balanced mixture of the other components of 20 amino acids, 17 vitamins, nucleic acid derivatives, essential minerals and trace elements), whose components are precisely matched with the violations occurring at various diseases. Gamavit enhances the effect of drugs, normalizes metabolism, neutralizes toxins, increases the natural resistance, normalizes the ratio of calcium and phosphorus, increases appetite.

At the earliest stages of viral infections are quite effective and specific antiviral serum globulins (vitafel, vitafel-C, etc.). Their term exposure to viral particles is limited (about a week after the onset) the period of viremia. In addition to serum, in the initial stages of viral infection are effective interferon preparations and inducers: tsikloferon, out of production for animal health, comedones, maksidin 0.4% solution, neoferon, effective immune stimulants (immunofan, T-activin, mastitis, anandin) and etc., at later stages of certain virus diseases their use is not recommended.

This is one of the most contagious viral disease, which is otherwise called feline distemper, feline ataxia, cat fever, contagious agranulocytosis, or infectious parvovirus enteritis. The natural reservoir of the virus - the animals of the weasel family, and wild cats. Pathogens - small DNA-containing parvovirus are found in the saliva of infected animals, the discharge from the nose, in the urine and feces. Viruses are very persistent (stored in the crevices of the floor and furniture for over a year), are resistant to trypsin treatment, phenol, chloroform, acids, also apply to food and water, in particular, through the bowls for food and even, according to some, with the participation of the blood-sucking insects . Characteristic of vertical transmission: from the sick mother - offspring. I had been ill for a long time, animals detect neutralizing antibodies in high titer.

Deaths from the disease panleukopenia exceeds 90%, and die not only kittens, but adult animals. Been ill cats develop lifelong immunity, often for a long time remain virus carriers.

After the introduction into the body panleukopenia viruses primarily infect the epithelial cells of the digestive tract mucous membranes and limfogemopoeticheskie cells, including bone marrow stem cells responsible for lymphopoiesis. As a result develop severe panleukopenia (in association with a normal erythropoiesis), the severity of which determines how the brunt and the outcome of the disease.

Because panleukopenia affects virtually all organ systems, recognize it at once can be difficult - the symptoms are very diverse. The incubation period is 3-10 days. The most common disease recorded in the spring and fall.

symptoms. With lightning-shaped animals die suddenly as a “bolt from the blue ‘, without any noticeable symptoms. The acute form begins with lethargy, depression of appetite, sudden and sharp rise in temperature to 40-41oS. Cats are thirsty, but do not drink the water. There is frequent vomiting, yellowish mass, often with mucus. Later, you may develop diarrhea mixed with blood (very fetid), or, on the contrary, there is constipation. On the skin, sometimes they observed the appearance of reddish spots that grow and turn into blisters filled with serous fluid. After drying formed a grayish-brown crust. For respiratory complications observed muco-purulent discharge from the eyes. There are also bradycardia and / or arrhythmia. Animals tend to retire to a secluded place, lying on his stomach, stretched limbs. Sometimes a long time sitting on a saucer with water, but do not drink - perhaps due to severe nausea.

The disease affects all organs and its dire complications. Without treatment, the animal can die within 4-5 days. If the illness is prolonged to 9 days or more cats usually survive, acquiring life-long immunity, but remaining virus carriers, so ill with mother can infect her offspring.

The diagnosis is confirmed by the KLA, in which there is pronounced leukopenia (reduction in the number of white blood cells in 1 ml of blood to 3 and less than 5×106) - agranulocytosis, neutropenia and lymphopenia then.

treatment. Before the arrival of the doctor should begin treatment vitafelom, fosprenilom (administered daily by 0.2-0.4 ml / kg, depending on the severity of the disease, 3-4 times a day) in combination with maksidin and gamavitom. Treatment stopped after 2-3 days after normalization overall core and disappearance of symptoms. The preparation was then canceled within 3-6 days, with a gradual decrease in the daily dose. If it affects the upper respiratory tract is recommended burying multiple Fosprenil in the eyes and nasal passages provided dilution of the drug with saline 3-5 times ex temrore and gamavitom (or - Intensive vitamin therapy in combination with iron preparations), to provide a complete rest, warmth and good care. Required assignment starvation diet. In the treatment of the initial stages of the disease is effective maksidin (E.D.Ilchenko et al. 2002). To prevent complications, use of beta-lactam antibiotics: penicillins and cephalosporins (albipen LA, amoxicillin, novice, cefadroxil, cephalosporins-smoking), the kittens - ampioks, to combat dehydration - metoclopramide, Ringer’s solution. If a sick cat does not die within 5-7 days, the prognosis is usually favorable. During the rehabilitation period - Gamavit, protein-vitamin-mineral supplements: SA-37, fitominy, “Gamma”, tsamaks other.

В If you suspect a panleukopenia in any case do not let the cat analgin!

Prevention. To prevent feline plague may be recommended timely vaccination of kittens polyvalent vaccines: Nobivac Tricat (used to protect cats from viral rhinotracheitis, panleukopenia and kalitsiviroza) Multifel-4 or vitafelvak (against rhinotracheitis, kalitsiviroza, panleukopenia and chlamydia).

It is desirable to take into account the immune status of the cat and the existing risk of infection. Normally, immunization is carried out first at age 12 weeks, 15-16 weeks - repeatedly. If the level is not high enough colostral antibodies and the risk of infection, the first vaccination can be carried out in 9 weeks, and the second at 12 weeks.

This infection - DNA containing the herpes virus, which has a lipoprotein envelope. Respiratory herpesvirus infection in a 1-2-month-old kitten was first identified in the U.S. in 1958

The virus is usually transmitted transplatsentarno. The incubation period is short - 2-3 days. Perhaps asymptomatic infection when the virus enters a latent form, but later (after suffering stress, immunosuppression, use of glucocorticoids) - the virus can become active.

symptoms, depression, lack of appetite, fever, purulent conjunctivitis, keratitis, rarely bilateral protrusion of the third eyelid, diarrhea (usually yellowish-green in color), ulceration of the mouth, trachea, in severe cases, possible pneumonia. Described as herpes encephalitis.

Treatment appointed veterinarian. Effective anti-viral agents such as fosprenil and maksidin. Therapy using maksidin achieves clinical improvement on 2-3rd day of the disease, and full recovery - on the 8th day (E.D.Ilchenko et al., 2002). To stimulate cellular immunity - immunofan. As a means to support and strengthen - Gamavit, vitamin and mineral supplements. Diarrhea - diarkan, Vetom-1.1.

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (viral rhinitis) - a contagious disease that occurs in cats of any age. Cause it more certain viruses of the herpes group, as well as caliciviruses and reovirus. DNA comprising rhinotracheitis virus cats related to herpes group has lipoprotein envelope sensitive to treatment with chloroform, and acids. Infection occurs through the respiratory tract. Incubation period: 2-4 days. Affects the mouth, nose, eyes and respiratory system. The disease may be complicated by keratoconjunctivitis and pneumonia. Among the kittens up to 6 months mortality as high as 30%. Adult cats usually recover, however, the infection caused by one of these viruses can be complicated by the development of another virus (or more), the mortality rate can reach 80%. Most of the ill animals are virus carriers, the process of allocating contagious viral particles significantly increased under stress.

symptoms. Lethargy, loss of appetite, cough, photophobia, purulent discharge from the nose and eyes, glossitis, ulcerative stomatitis, salivation, fever.

Create a diseased animals calm environment, keep him warm, let the warm milk and liquid foods.

treatment. Diseased cat injected maksidin (E.D.Ilchenko et al., 2001) in conjunction with fosprenilom (according to instructions) and gamavitom, or - vitafel, n / a 3.4 fold, or specific serum against feline picornavirus, parvovirus and virus Herpes 5 ml per day (made in France). Antibiotics: ampicillin (albipen LA) n / a 10-20 mg per kg body weight per day, tetracycline (inside of 10 mg per kg body weight 2 times a day).

The effectiveness of treatment and fosprenilom maksidin in combination with symptomatic therapy for these diseases is close to 100%.

acute viral disease, accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature and airways disease. Pathogens - small non-enveloped RNA-containing viruses that kind of Calicivirus family Caliciviridae. The name given because of the typical cup-like depressions (from В«calicesВ» (Latin) - “cupВ»).

Infection is a contact and droplet infection. Viruses multiply in epithelial cells of the mucous membrane of respiratory tract, tonsils and submandibular lymph nodes. More common in kittens and young animals. Been ill cats become immune about 6 months, with blood found in their neutralizing antibody. Many cats remain carriers of caliciviruses.

The incubation period is 1-4 days.

symptoms of depression, intermittent fever, loss of appetite, emaciation, anemic mucous membranes, shortness of breath. Develop inflammation, and very characteristic of the disease ulcerated tongue, lips and mouth (stomatitis), glossitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, serous, at least - two-sided protrusion of the third century. At last there is photophobia, eyelid often stick together because of the drying up of pus on them. In the later stages may tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. Some strains of caliciviruses cause intermittent claudication, with no signs of ulceration of the mouth.

The diagnosis should raise veterinarian.

Coronaviruses - these are large (diameter 80-130 nm) pleyomorfnye RNA-containing viruses with membrane lipoprotein. Along with togaviruses, these viruses belong to the order Nidovirales. On the surface of the shell are large, widely separated from each other glycoprotein processes in the form of clubs. The name of the coronaviruses were due to the similarity of these processes with srinarum corona - a crown of thorns, is traditionally depicted around the head of Christ in medieval paintings. Surface glycoproteins of coronaviruses are resistant to proteases, high and low pH. Although the disease was first described almost 40 years ago (Holzworth, 1963), in Russian coronavirus infection of cats appeared only in the mid 90-ies of XX century, but quickly become a real scourge owners cat kennels. Coronaviruses cause in cats two very contagious disease - infectious peritonitis coronavirus enteritis. Transmission is usually through the feces, rarely - through saliva.

Vysokokontagioznoe disease pathogens which are FECV - enteropathogenic coronaviruses. These viruses infect primarily the intestinal epithelium and causing cats (especially young) enteritis occurring relatively easily. In adult cats infection is usually asymptomatic. It ill animals develop immunity, but noted and chronic carrier of the virus.

The diagnosis should raise veterinarian.

Symptoms: fever, interrupted vomiting and swollen stomach, diarrhea (rare).

The infection is usually referred to as FIP (Feline infectious reritonitis), more recently known as the causative agent - coronavirus - was identified only in 1977, these coronaviruses (FIRV) breed on the tips of the villi of the intestinal epithelium or in the mesenteric lymph nodes after as infected mononuclear cells of macrophage type. The virulence of the coronavirus depends on their ability to infect peritoneal macrophages. Apparently, FIPV arose as a result of deletion mutation in the genome FECV (Andrew SE, 2000).

The most susceptible kittens, young animals up to 2 years of age and older cats with weakened immune systems. Disease is transmitted mainly through nutritional, though, perhaps, a disease caused by infection FECV, mutated in FIPV already in the organism of the cat carrier. The incubation period of the disease is 2-3 weeks. According M.M.Rahmaninoy and E.I.Elizbarashvili (1998), the most susceptible to the disease purebred cats, especially when the content of crowding. In North America, the disease is most often detected in non-castrated males, and less often - in sterilized females (Rohrbach BW ea 2001). Virus from infected animals for a long time released into the environment with the feces (with saliva - rare), and this feature typically occurs in kittens before seroconversion was observed. Viral shedding in feces of patients cats and carriers may be constant or periodic (Addie DD, Jarrett O., 2001).

В Perhaps asymptomatic carriage of virus (!)

Simptomy.U diseased cats appetite decreases, the temperature rises to 40 В° C and above, there are diarrhea, vomiting, anemia, dehydration, weight loss, respiratory distress and developed peritonitis, the abdomen swells. Sometimes there pleurisy least orchitis, and testicular found in the damaged virus antigen (Sigurdardottir OG, Kolbjornsen O., Lutz H., 2001).

There are two clinical forms of the disease: dry (nonexudative) and wet (exudative).

If there is a dry form of granulomatous enteritis, characterized by the presence of dense, whitish-gray nodules in the ileum, cecum and / or colon. Intestine looks compacted and hardened, stuffed with bundles.
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